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CEESI Gas Flow Meter Publications

The following are a selection of papers written by CEESI engineers regarding gas flow meters. If you would like addition information on this type of meter, or on other flow measurement topics, search the Measurement Library. Please read the CEESI Disclaimer before downloading any CEESI publications.


The Effects of Oil Coating on the Measurement of Gas Flow Using Sharp Edged Orifice Flowmeters
Bill Johansen and Tom Kegel,  1996, Forum on Fluid Measurements and Instrumentation

Abstract:
Orifice plates are known to be sensitive to a variety of effects due to dimensional variations and flowing fluid conditions. A number of studies have been performed to determine the specific effects of water entrainment and two phase flow on orifices, but the results were not well documented and were limited in scope. This paper describes an investigation funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to determine the effects of a coating of compressor oil on the flowmetering performance of orifice plates. A viscous oil is used to coat only the plate or both the plate and upstream piping. The effect of this coating on orifices having different diameter ratios (B) in several different line sizes is evaluated by statistically comparing the discharge coefficient for the wetted orifice to the discharge coefficient when dry.
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Effect of Liquid Entrainment on the Accuracy of Orifice Meters for Gas Flow Measurement
V.C. Ting and G. P. Corpron,  1995, International Gas Research Conference

Abstract:
This paper presents the results of a study to show that a small amount of liquid entrainment in an orifice meter can affect the accuracy of gas flow measurement. A series of tests, sponsored by Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, was conducted under controlled conditions at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI) air flow calibration facility to study this effect. Eight-inch orifice meters were selected for the experiments. The tests were conducted at 4.13 MPa (600 psia) over the orifice Reynolds number range from 4 to 9 million using two horizontally mounted orifice meters. Water was injected at a controlled rate upstream of the orifice meter to simulate field conditions. It was found that the presence of a small amount of liquid in the gas stream caused the orifice meters to read a lower gas flow measurement by as much as 1.7% depending on the beta ratio and the liquid rate.
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Effect of Liquid Entrainment on the Accuracy of Orifice Meters for Gas Flow Measurement
V.C. Ting and G. P. Corpron,  1995, International Gas Research Conference

Abstract:
This paper presents the results of a study to show that a small amount of liquid entrainment in an orifice meter can affect the accuracy of gas flow measurement. A series of tests, sponsored by Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, was conducted under controlled conditions at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI) air flow calibration facility to study this effect. Eight-inch orifice meters were selected for the experiments. The tests were conducted at 4.13 MPa (600 psia) over the orifice Reynolds number range from 4 to 9 million using two horizontally mounted orifice meters. Water was injected at a controlled rate upstream of the orifice meter to simulate field conditions. It was found that the presence of a small amount of liquid in the gas stream caused the orifice meters to read a lower gas flow measurement by as much as 1.7% depending on the beta ratio and the liquid rate.
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Intercomparison Tests of Gas Flow Rate Standards
Masaki Takamoto,  1993, Proceedings, FLOMEKO '93

Abstract:
Intercomparison tests of primary calibration facilities for sonic Venturi nozzles have been made among NRLM (National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Japan), PTB (Physikalish - Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany) and CEESI ( Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc, U.S.A.). The Facilities of these three laboratories are based on different method, i.e. volumetric (constant volume tank), volumetric (bell prover) and gravimetric (pressure vessels), systems, respectively. Six nozzles of 25 to 200m3lh were used for the tests. The nozzles were calibrated together with straighteners, which satisfy ISO and ASME standards, installed upstream of the nozzles. The results were agreed within the uncertainties of the calibration facilities of the three laboratories, 0.1%. Effect of the straightener on calibration of a nozzle was also investigated. It is recognized that the straightener minimizes the effect of upstream disturbances. However, a small nozzle is not affected by the disturbances even if the straightener is not installed.
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Laboratory Calibration of Transmission Gas Flow Metering Systems
Walt Seidl and Steve Caldwell,  1985, American Gas Association Distribution/Transmission Conference

Abstract:
A description is given of the capabilities and procedures used for the calibration of transmission gas flow metering systems at Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc.(CEESI). CEESI is a not-for-profit organization that has been performing gas flow metering calibrations in a laboratory environment for eighteen years. Calibrations are performed by use of critical flow venturis that have been proven on CEESIs in-house primary standards which are traceable to basic national standards. Calibrations have been performed in line sizes up to 48 inches with flow rates up to 135 million SCFD. Both steady-state and cycling flows can be used during calibrations.
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Quality Assurance for Gas Flow Measurement
B. T. Arnberg and H. S. Hillbrath,  1973, American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Abstract:
Primary gas flow standards are now available which can compare gas flow measurements of up to 20 lb/sec of air to national standards of mass and time. The predominant type of secondary standard used for transfer or working meters is the critical flow venturi. Recommendation for the design, construction, and calibration of secondary standard critical flow venturis is given. Some recent performance results for discharge coefficient and choking pressure ratio are summarized. Suggestions are also made for test procedures to be used with these devices.
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Two Primary Methods of Proving Gas Flow Meters
B. T. Arnberg,  1971, Symposium on Flow

Abstract:
Abstract not available.
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Review of Critical Flowmeters for Gas Flow Measurement
B. T. Arnberg,  1962, ASME Journal of Basic Engineering

Abstract:
Critical Flow Meters for accurately measuring the mass flow rates of nonreacting real gases were reviewed. Discussions were presented on theoretical flow functions, on parameters for correlating discharge coefficients, and on the importance of real gas properties. The performance characteristics of critical nozzles and orifices of several designs were reviewed. Approaches were discussed to problems which must be researched before the fullest potential of this type of flow measurement can be realized.
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