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CEESI Wet Gas/Multiphase Publications

The following are a selection of papers written by CEESI engineers regarding wet gas/multiphase flow measurement. If you would like addition information on this type of meter, or on other flow measurement topics, search the Flow Measurement Technical Library. Please read the CEESI Disclaimer before downloading any CEESI publications.


Diagnostics for Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Mark Skelton Simon Barrons Jennifer Ayre Richard Steven,  2012, 2012 Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Abstract:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow computers thereby making these principles available for field applications.
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Horizontally Installed Orifice Plate Meter Response to Wet Gas Flows
Richard Steven, Gordon Stobie Andrew Hall Bill Priddy,  2012, 2012 Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Abstract:
The research and development of multiphase wet gas flow meters for natural gas flows with entrained hydrocarbon liquid (HCL) and water is important to industry. However, the performance of single phase flow meters, such as orifice plate meters, with multiphase wet gas flows is also of importance. Nevertheless, in recent years research into orifice meter wet gas flow response has been relatively underplayed
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WET GAS MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2012, 87th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible. The traditional method of metering wet gas or multiphase flows is to separate the fluids in a dedicated separator vessel. The inlet of these vessels receives the unprocessed flow of natural gas and liquids (which may be both hydrocarbon liquids and water). The vessel is designed to separate the component fluids and allow the flow to exit separately as natural gas and single component liquid flows where single phase flow measurement technologies can be utilized. This is the original wet gas and multiphase meter technology.
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MULTIPHASE FLOW MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2012, 87th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given
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Horizontally Installed 8, 0.6 Beta Ratio Venturi Meter Wet Natural Gas Flow Response
Richard Steven, Charlie Britton & Joshua Kinney,  2012, 8th International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement

Abstract:
The hydrocarbon production industries use of wet gas flow metering techniques continues to increase worldwide. The demand has driven the development of several sophisticated wet natural gas flow meters that predict both the gas and liquid flow rates simultaneously. However, the cost of such sophisticated wet gas flow meters prohibits their use in many wet gas flow production applications. The relatively simple and inexpensive, and therefore the most common wet gas flow metering technique, is to use a stand alone gas Venturi meter with a wet gas correlation. A wet gas correlation is a correction factor for the positive bias (or over-reading) induced on the meters gas flow rate prediction by the liquid. The main limitation of using a stand alone Venturi meter with a wet gas correlation is that such an approach requires the liquid flow rate to be found by some external means and keypad entered into the flow computer. Only then does the system correct for the over-reading and predict the gas flow rate
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Orifice Meter Diagnostics - A Discussion on Theory, Laboratory Tests, System Interface and Field Results
Richard Steven,Casey Hodges,  2012, 8th International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement

Abstract:
the generic family of differential pressure (DP) meters. All generic DP meters operate according to the same physical principles. In 2008 a theoretical DP meter diagnostic concept was described by Steven 1. In 2009 this theoretical concept was developed into a proposed practical industrial system. Swinton Technology and DP Diagnostics have now developed the product (called Prognosis). In 2010 Prognosis was successfully field tested on orifice plate meters by BP and ConocoPhillips (see Skelton 3). Over the last two years the technology has been further refined and systems are now operational in various DP meter applications around the world. In this paper the diagnostic theory for orifice meters is discussed in relation to recent improvements to the diagnostic system. CEESI laboratory test results are shown from the recently upgraded diagnostic system monitoring correctly operating and deliberately malfunctioning orifice meters. Finally, as part of a Prognosis field trial CEESI Measurement Solutions Inc. (CMSI) included Prognosis on orifice meter station auditing projects. The subsequent response of Prognosis to correctly operating and malfunctioning live natural gas orifice meters is shown
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EFFECTS OF WET GAS FLOW ON GAS ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Josh Kinney Richard Steven,  2012, 2012 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter
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ORIFICE PLATE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Richard Steven,  2012, 2012 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator
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Wet Gas Test Comparison Results of Orifice Metering Relative to Gas Ultrasonic Metering
John Lansing,Toralf Dietz,Dr. Richard Steven,  2012, 2012 Americas Flow Measurement Conference Proceedings

Abstract:
Traditionally orifice meters have been used in wet gas applications rather than gas ultrasonic meters (USM). There are many reasons for this, but certainly one has been the question regarding reliability of a gas ultrasonic meter when subjected to liquid loading. The question is this: How does the accuracy of the orifice compare to the gas USM when liquids exist? Another question might be asked is: Can the USM clearly identify when liquids are present, and give the operator an idea of what gas volume has passed through the meter during this time? To investigate these questions, two different meters were tested at the CEESI Nunn Wet Gas loop in Nunn, Colorado. The first test involved a 4-inch orifice and 4-inch USM in series (the USM was a 4 and 2-path meter all in one body). For the second test a 3-inch orifice and 3inch, 2-path USM was tested. Both tests involved several flow rates, 2-3 different pressures, and up to 8 different levels of liquid loading. The fluid used in most of the tests was Exxsol, a kind of kerosene that is popular for this type of testing. For the 3-inch tests, a limited number of data sets were also taken using water
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WET GAS MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2011, 86th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible. The traditional method of metering wet gas or multiphase flows is to separate the fluids in a dedicated separator vessel. The inlet of these vessels receives the unprocessed flow of natural gas and liquids (which may be both hydrocarbon liquids and water). The vessel is designed to separate the component fluids and allow the flow to exit separately as natural gas and single component liquid flows where single phase flow measurement technologies can be utilized. This is the original wet gas and multiphase meter technology
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CONE METERS FOR LIQUID AND GAS MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2011, 86th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have been used extensively since Herschel invented the Venturi meter, i.e. the original DP meter, in the 1880s. Since then there have been many different variants of DP meter appearing on the market. One of the most recent is the cone meter. The cone meter is a generic DP meter and uses the same generic DP meter flow equation as all other DP meters. All DP meter types exist on the market as they offer some advantage over the others. If a meter does not have some niche, whether it be reduced uncertainty, more reliability, wider range ability, self diagnostic capable or simply an attractive price, it would not be successful on the market. The cone meter has been steadily growing in market share for twenty years. Originally a patented device the patent expired several years ago and now the meter is a generic type offered by several suppliers
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ORIFICE PLATE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Richard Steven,  2011, 2011 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are a popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator.
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EFFECTS OF WET GAS FLOW ON GAS ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Josh Kinney, Richard Steven,  2011, 2011 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Venturi Meters and Wet Gas Flow
Rick de Leeuw, Richard Steven, Hans van Maanen,  2011, 2011 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Wet gas measurement is becoming essential for the oil and gas industry. Venturi flow meters are often used for this purpose. As the produced liquids also contribute to the measured differential pressure a correction is required to determine the actual gas flow rate. Recently, ISO has issued TR 11583 containing a new Venturi wet gas correlation. This paper presents a review of this ISO report. The conclusion of this review is that it is in the interest of the oil and gas industry that this ISO report should be ignored, preferably withdrawn, for several important reasons. In this paper these reasons will be explained. Using this ISO report in real life situations could lead to errors with the equivalent of millions of US per application.
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A Diagnostic System for Venturi Meters in Single Phase and Wet Gas Flow Applications
Deverapalli Vijay, Ben Glover, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven,  2011, 2011 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Venturi meters are popular for single phase and wet gas flow metering applications. Traditionally the Venturi meter with single phase or wet gas flow has little diagnostic capabilities. However, in the last three years a diagnostic system for generic Differential Pressure (DP) meters has been developed. In this paper this diagnostic system is discussed with the focus particularly on Venturi meters in use with dry and wet gas flows.
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Horizontally Installed Orifice Plate Meter Response to Wet Gas Flows
Richard Steven, Gordon Stobie, Andrew Hall, Bill Priddy,  2011, 2011 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
The research and development of multiphase wet gas flow meters for natural gas flows with entrained hydrocarbon liquid (HCL) and water is important to industry. However, the performance of single phase flow meters, such as orifice plate meters, with multiphase wet gas flows is also of importance. Nevertheless, in recent years research into orifice meter wet gas flow response has been relatively underplayed.
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Diagnostics for Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Mark Skelton, Simon Barrons, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven,  2011, 2011 Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Abstract:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow computers thereby making these principles available for field applications.
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4, 0.63 Beta Ratio Cone DP Meter Wet Gas Performance
Richard Steven, Charlie Britton, Joshua Kinney,  2010, Flomeko 2010

Abstract:
Cone DP meters are often used for unprocessed natural gas flow metering applications. Unprocessed natural gas flows can have entrained water and light hydrocarbon liquids. Hence, it is important to fully understand the wet gas flow response of cone DP meters. One method of metering the gas flow rate of a wet natural gas flow is to estimate the liquid flow rate (usually a mixture of hydrocarbon liquid and water) from an independent source (such as a tracer dilution technique or test separator histories) and then use a wet gas correction factor or correlation to correct for the liquid induced gas flow rate error. It is therefore necessary to have a reliable cone DP meter wet gas correlation for wet natural gas flows where the liquid component is a water and / or a light hydrocarbon liquid mixture.
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Diagnostic System for Venturi Meters
Richard Steven,  2010, Flomeko 2010

Abstract:
Venturi flow meters are popular for being simple, sturdy, reliable and inexpensive devices. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no Venturi meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 and 2009 a generic DP meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2,3 was proposed. In this paper these DP meter diagnostic principles are discussed specifically with respect to Venturi meters. In this paper the principles are proven with extensive experimental test results from Venturi meters. A diagnostics screen displaying the diagnostic results real time, first suggested in 2009 2, 3, is discussed and then used to present the experimental results.
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CONE DP METER CALIBRATION ISSUES
Casey Hodges, Charles Britton, William Johansen & Richard Steven,  2010, Flomeko 2010

Abstract:
Cone DP flow meters are becoming increasingly popular for natrual gas flow metering. A cond DP meter operarates according to the same physical principles as other DP meters but it is not as yet included in the ISO 5167 report on DP meters. In this paper, thirty one cone DP meter single phase data sets from CEESI independent research, a wet gas research Joint Industry Project, and multiple third party cone DP meter calibrations are reviewed. The meters discussed have diameters ranging from 2 to 14, beta ratios ranging from 0.45 to 0.85, Reynolds numbers rangeing between 5e4 and 5e6, and pressures up to 75 bara. This paper discusses
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WET GAS MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2010, 85th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible.
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MULTIPHASE MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2010, 85th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given
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ORIFICE PLATE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Dr Richard Steven,,  2010, 2010 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are a popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator.
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EFFECTS OF WET GAS FLOW ON GAS ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Josh Kinney & Richard Steven,  2010, 2010 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Developments in the Self-Diagnostic Capabilities of Orifice Plate Meters
Mark Skelton Simon Barrons Jennifer Ayre Richard Steven,  2010, 2010 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
In 2008 1 & 2009 2 DP Diagnostics disclosed a generic differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed the solution Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied via software on a PC automatically reading live instrument signals thereby making these principles available for field applications. Whereas initial DP Diagnostics technical papers concentrated on proving the diagnostic principles a simple way of presenting the diagnostic results was also proposed. The diagnostic analysis could be plotted as points on a graph which could be shown live in a control room (or archived for later analysis). After a review of the diagnostic methods this paper discusses diagnostic pattern recognition for this graphical representation
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Wet Gas Test Comparison Results of Orifice Metering Relative to Gas Ultrasonic Metering
John Lansing Toralf Dietz Richard Steven,  2010, 2010 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Traditionally orifice meters have been used in wet gas applications rather than gas ultrasonic meters (USM). There are many reasons for this, but certainly one has been the question regarding reliability of a gas ultrasonic meter when subjected to liquid loading. The question is this: How does the accuracy of the orifice compare to the gas USM when liquids exist? Another question might be asked is: Can the USM clearly identify when liquids are present, and give the operator an idea of what gas volume has passed through the meter during this time? To investigate these questions, two different meters were tested at the CEESI Nunn Wet Gas loop in Nunn, Colorado. The first test involved a 4-inch orifice and 4-inch USM in series (the USM was a 4 and 2-path meter all in one body). For the second test a 3-inch orifice and 3- inch, 2-path USM was tested. Both tests involved several flow rates, 2-3 different pressures, and up to 8 different levels of liquid loading. The fluid used in most of the tests was Exxsol, a kind of kerosene that is popular for this type of testing. For the 3-inch tests, a limited number of data sets were also taken using water
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EFFECTS OF ENTRAINED LIQUIDS ON ORIFICE MEASUREMENT
Josh Kinney Richard Steven,  2009, 2009 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e., flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter, it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter. The effect of wet gas flow on an orifice plate meter configured for gas flow service is complicated. There are ongoing research programs worldwide aimed at improving the understanding of the reaction of the differential pressure meter family (of which the orifice plate meter is a member) to wet gas flow. Most of the research results are published in conference papers. However, it is not always immediately obvious to the technician in the field using an orifice plate meter with wet gas how this information can be practically applied. This paper attempts to review the current scientific knowledge from a practical users standpoint
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Diagnostic Capabilities of ?P Cone Meters
Richard Steven DP Diagnostics,  2009, 7th International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement

Abstract:
Differential Pressure (or DP) flow meters have simple and relatively sturdy designs. This combination of simplicity and ruggedness make them both relatively inexpensive and reliable devices. Furthermore, their simplicity makes their operating principles easily understandable. For these reasons they are one of the most popular generic flow meter types. A DP Diagnostics ?P cone meter sketch is shown in Figure 1, with a cut away of the meter wall to reveal the differential pressure producing cone element. Cone DP meters are growing in popularity due to their proven immunity to the effects of most flow disturbances both upstream and downstream of the meter. That is, unlike most meter designs, the cone DP meter does not need extensive upstream and downstream straight pipe lengths, or flow conditioners, to meter the flow rate accurately. Therefore, the cone DP meter can be, and is, installed in many pipe work locations where no other flow meter could operate successfully (i.e. to a low uncertainty).
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Advances in Vortex Shedding Flow Metering
Jim Storer, Ed Schroeder, Richard Steven,  2009, 7th International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement

Abstract:
There is an increased importance being placed on flow metering by industry. With increasing energy costs a flow meter with a set percentage flow rate uncertainty is set to have an increasing monetary uncertainty. There is therefore a demand for reducing the uncertainty of all flow meter designs. In practice, as a flow meter uncertainty rating is only valid if there is a guarantee the meter is operating correctly, this also means there is a growing desire to improve the output verification capabilities and self diagnostics of all flow meter designs. Systems with redundancy factors are also desirable. In this paper the potential for combining vortex shedding and differential pressure (DP) meter technologies is discussed. It will be shown that combining these different technologies in one device produces a single flow metering system with distinct advantages compared to when a vortex shedding flow meter or a DP flow meter stand alone. This simple, sturdy, relatively inexpensive and reliable system meters the mass and volume flow rates as well as measuring the fluid density with no external fluid property information required. It offers enhanced output verification capabilities and allows some diagnostic capabilities.
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Wedge Meters with Wet Natural Gas Flows
Richard Steven, Charlie Britton, Josh Kinney, Steve Pagano,  2009, 7th International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement

Abstract:
The wedge meter has been on the market for more than twenty years and is well established. The wedge meter is a generic differential pressure (DP) meter and operates according to the same physical principles as all other DP meters (e.g. the orifice plate, Venturi, cone DP meters etc.). With the primary element being a very sturdy solid wedge it has a reputation for being a rugged meter capable of being used in adverse flow conditions such as slurry flows. Therefore this paper discusses, with the aid of wet gas flow data from two independent test facilities, the potential for the wedge meter to be developed for wet natural gas flow metering.
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MULTIPHASE FLOW MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2009, 84th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multiphase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Multiphase meters are a relatively recent technology in the oil and gas production industry. They tend to be relatively complex and proprietary in nature. Therefore, there can be a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, there will be an introduction to multiphase flow terminology, multiphase flow patterns and an overview of generic multiphase metering techniques.
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Horizontally Installed Cone Differential Pressure Meter Wet Gas Flow Performance
Richard Steven,  2009, 2009 South East Asia Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Cone DP meters are widely used to meter wet natural gas flows. It is therefore important to fully understand the wet gas flow response of cone DP meters. One method of metering the gas flow rate of a wet natural gas flow is to estimate the liquid flow rate (usually a mixture of hydrocarbon liquid and water) from an independent source (such as a tracer dilution technique or test separator histories) and then use a wet gas correlation to correct for a meters liquid induced gas flow rate error. It is therefore important to have a reliable cone DP meter wet gas correlation for wet natural gas flows where the liquid component is a water and light hydrocarbon liquid1 mixture.
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Significantly Improved Capabilities of DP Meter Diagnostic Methodologies
Richard Steven,  2009, 2009 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Differential Pressure (DP) flow meters are a popular generic flow meter type. DP meters are simple, sturdy, reliable and inexpensive devices. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no DP meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 a generic DP meter self diagnostic methodology 1 was proposed. In this paper these DP meter diagnostic principles are reconfirmed and a simpler methodology is also explained. These two methods will be shown to operate in conjunction increasing the overall sensitivity of a DP meters diagnostic capability. These diagnostic methods work for all generic DP meter designs. However, in this paper they are proven with extensive experimental test results from orifice plate and cone DP meters. Finally, it is recognized that it can be beneficial to have real time diagnostics where the diagnostic results are shown to the operator in a very simple and easily understood format. DP Diagnostics proposes such a method.
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Cone DP Meter Calibration Issues
Casey Hodges, Charles Britton, William Johansen & Richard Steven,  2009, 2009 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Cone DP flow meters are becoming increasingly popular in the oil and gas industry. A cone DP meter is a member of the generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter family and operates according to the same physical principles as other DP meter types. ISO 5167 1 states the performance of orifice plate, nozzle, Venturi nozzle and Venturi DP meters across set geometry designs, over particular ranges of flow conditions. ISO 5167 covers these meters as they have a long history of research where the massed data sets are publicly available for scrutiny. However, ISO 5167 does not cover cone DP meters as the patent protection has only recently lapsed and no independent research has yet shown that cone DP meters of set geometries have repeatable and reproducible performances over given flow condition ranges. This paper reviews cone DP meter data from CEESI independent research, a CEESI wet gas Joint Industry Project and multiple third party1 tests. The cone DP meters discussed are produced by multiple manufacturers. Performance comparisons are made between nominally identical cone DP meters. The relative merits of calibrating cone DP meters with low Reynolds number water flows or high Reynolds numbers gas flows will be discussed. The pros and cons of cone DP meter periodic re-calibration is also discussed. The effect of damage changing the cone alignment will be considered. Finally, the prospect of cone DP meters being eligible for inclusion in ISO 5167 is discussed
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North Belut Dualstream II Advanced Wet Gas Meter - Flow Testing at CEESI
Warih Kundono, Malcolm Brown, Gordon Stobie, Mark Tudge, Alan Downing, Alistair Collins, Richard Steven and Thomas Kegel,  2008, 2008 South East Asia Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
An 8 Solartron ISA Dualstream II Advanced wet gas meter for North Belut, Indonesia has been dry gas tested in natural gas (at Bishop Auckland, UK) and wet gas flow tested at CEESI with air and kerosene/water mixes. This paper discusses the selection and proposed use of this meter, the validity of testing wet natural gas meters with air flows and describes the new CEESI wet gas facility for testing large diameter, high flow rate wet gas meters. The CEESI facilities commissioning runs with a 4 orifice plate meter are described and the results compared to existing CEESI and NEL wet gas orifice meter data. With a validated test system the Dualstream II wet gas meter data will be analysed The operational principles of the meter will be reviewed and the performance of the meter with the wet gas flow with water cuts will be discussed.
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Characterizing Ultrasonic Meter Performance Using A Very Large Database
Richard Steven,  2008, 2008 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Single phase differential pressure (DP) meters can be used to meter wet gas flows if the liquid flow rate can be obtained from an independent source and a suitable wet gas correction factor is available. As it is not a trivial task to measure the liquid flow rate of a wet gas flow, sophisticated wet gas flow meters have been developed that meter the gas and liquid phases simultaneously. The complexity of most wet gas meters means that they tend to be expensive (relative to standard gas meters). Therefore, due to economic necessity, many wet gas flow applications still have single phase gas meters being fitted to meter wet gas flows. This situation is not ideal, as it means poorer metering performance than what is really desired.
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Further Evaluation of the Performance of Horizontally Installed Orifice Plate and Cone Differential Pressure Meters with Wet Gas Flows
Richard Steven, Gordon Stobie & Andrew Hall,  2008, 2008 South East Asia Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Orifice meters have been studied for many years and their performance in single phase flows is well documented in the standards 1. Between 1967 and 1977 Chisholm 2,3 researched the response of orifice meters to two phase flow. No further research on the behaviour of orifice meters in wet gas flows was released until 2007, when Hall et al 4 and Steven et al 5,6,7 showed data from CEESI that indicated Chisholms equation 3 was appropriate for predicting the over-reading of an orifice meter in wet gas flow conditions, across a significant range of the flow conditions tested. Only at very low or high gas velocities (or gas densimetric Froude number) did Chisholms equation become inaccurate. In 2005 Steven 8 summarized the research into cone meters in wet gas flow. Stewart et al 9 had shown that cone meters had a performance in wet gas flow that was sensitive to the beta ratio, where this has been found to not be a very significant issue with orifice meters, as shown by Steven 5. Since most available cone meter data is for a 0.75 beta ratio, the wet gas over-reading correlation for the cone meter, Steven 8, is specific to this beta ratio. At the 2007 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop, two papers, Evans et al 10 and Steven 11, showed that the published 0.75 beta ratio cone meter correlation was seen to diverge and become inaccurate on extrapolation to higher gas velocities than the data set for which the correlation was derived.
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A Discussion on Vortex Meter Technologies with Wet Gas Flows
Andrew Hall, Richard Steven,  2008, 2008 South East Asia Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
It is commonly believed that vortex flow meters can be used by the hydrocarbon production industry in adverse flow conditions as they have a reputation for being robust. One such application would be metering the gas offtake from a separator where the meter may occasionally encounter wet gas flow conditions. Extending this operation into the metering of unprocessed wet natural gas flow streams should be possible, although to date there has been only limited published research into vortex meter performance with wet gas flows. This paper presents the results of two vortex shedding flow meter research projects. The first was a single phase flow project, the second a wet gas flow project. Both are based on the investigation of the permanent pressure loss across the vortex meters bluff body as an extra variable to increase the capability of the metering system.
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EFFECTS OF ENTRAINED LIQUIDS ON ORIFICE MEASUREMENT
Josh Kinney, Richard Steven,  2008, 2008 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e., flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter, it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter. The effect of wet gas flow on an orifice plate meter configured for gas flow service is complicated. There are ongoing research programs worldwide aimed at improving the understanding of the reaction of the differential pressure meter family (of which the orifice plate meter is a member) to wet gas flow. Most of the research results are published in conference papers. However, it is not always immediately obvious to the technician in the field using an orifice plate meter with wet gas how this information can be practically applied. This paper attempts to review the current scientific knowledge from a practical users standpoint.
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THERMOMETRY IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Joshua J. Kinney,  2008, 83nd International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
There are many conditions in natural gas flow measurement that can cause errors that are difficult to pinpoint. Finding inconsistencies in large measurement systems is cumbersome, especially if the base measurements are in error. Accurate flow measurement requires the base measurements to be reported correctly, including gas temperature. When temperature is measured incorrectly, it can have a pronounced effect on overall flow measurement.
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WET GAS MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2008, 83nd International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible. The traditional method of metering wet gas or multiphase flows is to separate the fluids in a dedicated separator vessel. The inlet of these vessels receives the unprocessed flow of natural gas and liquids (which may be both hydrocarbon liquids and water). The vessel is designed to separate the component fluids and allow the flow to exit separately as natural gas and single component liquid flows where single phase flow measurement technologies can be utilized. This is the original wet gas and multiphase meter technology.
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MULTIPHASE MEASUREMENT
Richard Steven,  2008, 83nd International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given.
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Comparisons Between Horizontally Installed Standard and Non-Standard Flange Tapped Orifice Plate Meter Wet Gas Flow Responses
Richard Steven, Charlie Britton, Joshua Kinney,  2007, Flomeko 2007

Abstract:
Wet gas flow metering is an important problem in many industries and due to economic necessity many wet gas flows are metered by single phase gas differential pressure (DP) flow meters. A common DP meter design is the orifice plate meter and it is therefore one of the most widely used meters with wet gas flows. The early orifice meter horizontal flow wet gas research is well documented but in the last decade Venturi and cone type DP meters have been favoured as orifice plates were assumed to dam the liquid phase and therefore give relatively unstable DP readings. However, recent data analysis 1,2 suggests that standard orifice meter wet gas flow readings are not significantly affected by liquid build up and the readings are stable and correctable. Even so, it has been suggested by some engineers that liquid hold up by a plate could still potentially be a problem at low pressure and low gas flow rates.
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V-Cone Wet Gas Metering
Richard Steven,  2007, 2007 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
Single phase differential pressure (DP) meters can be used to meter wet gas flows if the liquid flow rate can be obtained from an independent source and a suitable wet gas correction factor is available. As it is not a trivial task to measure the liquid flow rate of a wet gas flow, sophisticated wet gas flow meters have been developed that meter the gas and liquid phases simultaneously. The complexity of most wet gas meters means that they tend to be expensive (relative to standard gas meters). Therefore, due to economic necessity, many wet gas flow applications still have single phase gas meters being fitted to meter wet gas flows. This situation is not ideal, as it means poorer metering performance than what is really desired.
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A Discussion on Wet Gas Flow Parameter Definitions
Andrew Hall, Douglas Griffin, Richard Steven,  2007, 2007 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
For more than a decade, the technical papers presented at flow meter conferences have included papers that have discussed the issues of wet gas flow metering. This is directly related to the continued increase in the development and use of wet gas flow in the natural gas production industry. Wet gas meter technologies had previously been developed primarily for steam measurement within the power generation industry. However, the steam industrys research into this topic had wound down by the early 1980s. When the natural gas production industry restarted this research on the strength of earlier publications, some terminology was taken from these records and other terminology was created by the new research. However, there has never been any attempt to unify the terminology. Therefore, the result is that researchers, meter manufacturers and meter users are free to produce their own definitions for commonly used terms, which often do not match those of others, and as a result of this there has been confusion and misunderstanding.
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RE-EVALUATION OF AXIOMS REGARDING ORIFICE METER WET GAS FLOW PERFORMANCE
Richard Steven, Frank Ting, Gordon Stobie,  2007, 2007 South East Asia Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
New wet gas flow data with 3 and 4 orifice meters suggests that orifice meters can be used like other differential pressure (DP) meters to meter wet gas flows. Liquid hold up due to the presence of the orifice plate was not found to cause pipe flow or metering problems. The wet gas flow readings from orifice meters are repeatable and predictable and for given wet gas flow conditions, the liquid induced error in the gas rate prediction is less than for equivalent cone and venturi type DP meters. Chisholms correlation has been shown to correct the liquid induced gas meter errors satisfactorily for most wet gas flows when the liquid flow rate can be estimated by independent means and DPs are kept below 500WC.
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NEW DATA FOR THE CORRECTION OF ORIFICE PLATE MEASUREMENTS IN WET GAS FLOW CONDITIONS
Andrew Hall, Richard Steven,  2007, 2007 South East Asia Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement Workshop

Abstract:
The orifice plate meter is a common flow meter in the oil and gas industry. This single phase gas flow meter is often used to meter unprocessed natural gas production flows which may in reality be wet gas flows. That is, the orifice meter is often used to meter the gas flowrate of a wet gas flow. As with all other differential pressure (DP) type meter designs used with wet gas flows, the orifice meter has a liquid induced error in its gas flowrate prediction output. The size of this error is stated in the literature to be dependent on the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter and the gas to liquid density ratio 1,2,3. However more recent wet gas research on other DP meter designs has shown liquid-induced errors in their gas flowrate prediction that are not only dependent on these two variables, but also the gas densimetric Froude number 4,5 and liquid properties 6,7,8,9. These particular phenomena have not yet been specifically investigated for wet gas flow through orifice meters. Also it is currently unknown whether changing the pipe diameter has any effect on the wet gas response of any DP meter, although there is some suspicion that this variable may have an affect 7,10. This paper shows new wet gas orifice meter data from tests conducted for BP at Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI) in 2006. The first set of data is for a 4 inch, 0.68 beta orifice meter at a nominal pressure of 60 bara with natural gas and the single liquid hydrocarbon component, Stoddard Solvent (which is a hydrocarbon mix that is predominately C10 to C12). The second set of data is for a 2 inch, 0.515 beta orifice meter at different pressures with natural gas and a liquid phase made up of various mixes of fresh water and Stoddard Solvent. This paper discusses the analysis of the 4 inch orifice meter wet gas data set and relates the results to the literature. The 2 inch orifice meter wet gas data set is analysed to offer some insight into the liquid property effect. Finally, the possibility of orifice meters having a wet gas flow diameter effect is discussed.
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Wet Gas Metering: High to Low Gas Volume Fractions
Frank Ting, Richard Steven,  2007, 7th Annual Multiphase Measurement User Roundtable

Abstract:
Background for discussions (5 slides) Definitions Low GVF- How much liquid in MMSCF? High GVF- How much liquid in MMSCF? Flow Measurement Methods Challenges
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EFFECTS OF WET GAS FLOW ON GAS ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Josh Kinney, Richard Steven,  2007, 2007 American School of Gas Measurement Technology

Abstract:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Wet Gas Flow Metering With Gas Meter Technologies
Steven, Richard,  2006, Ciateq 2006

Abstract:
Wet gas flow metering is a major challenge to the natural gas production industry and potential applications for wet natural gas flow meters have been growing rapidly since the early 1990’s. Many natural gas reservoirs that initially produce dry gas flows are becoming wet natural gas flows as the conditions in the reservoirs change as they age. Also, the desire to maximize the financial return of the existing off-shore infrastructure has led to increased use of wet gas production flow tie-backs so marginal assets that would not be financially viable if they required dedicated platforms of their own can be tapped by utilizing the existing platforms in the area. Furthermore, many on-shore natural gas production flows also have wet gas flows.

There has been considerable effort by the flow meter manufacturers to research and develop wet gas flow meters over the last decade. The aim of these state of the art wet gas flow meters is to meter the gas and liquid phases simultaneously. For the case of ”multiphase“ meters used with wet gas flow (where the industry generally uses the term “multiphase” to mean two-phase gas and liquid flow where there is more than one liquid component – which usually means natural gas, liquid hydrocarbon liquid and water) the aim of the designs are to meter the gas and each liquid component. However, although there are such meters on the market they tend to be expensive (relative to standard gas meters) and due to their relatively recent arrival on the market and the lack of independent data their performance is keenly debated at many conferences.
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Wet Gas Measurement
Joshua J. Kinney,  2005, International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement 2005

Abstract:
In the natural gas industry, proper flow measurement is one of the key elements in providing accurate allocation of revenue. Natural gas may have some liquid content. This liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, compressor oil or a mixture of all three. When a flow meter is subjected to wet gas, large errors in flow measurement may occur with undesirable results to the bottom line. The intention of this paper is to introduce the reader to the difficulties associated with wet gas measurement and identify some techniques being used accomplish this. The content presented is not intended for wet gas measurement error correction. The first section gives a brief glossary of terms used when describing wet gas flow followed by a list of general equations associated with these terms. The next section gives descriptions wet gas flow regimes present in a horizontal pipe. Previous research conducted in a controlled environment is presented focusing on the effect of entrained liquids on various flow measurement devices. In addition, methods of wet gas flow measurement are discussed. Finally, general ideas about wet gas metering are discussed.
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Wet Gas Measurement
Tom Kegel,  2003, 4th CIATEQ Seminar on Advanced Flow Measurement

Abstract:
Wet gas is a flowing mixture of gas and liquid where the liquid makes up a small part of the mixture. The liquid can be made up of hydrocarbons and free water. This paper is intended to introduce the reader to wet gas flow measurement. First, some basic terms and flow features are presented. Second, a simple analysis of wet gas flow through an orifice meter is discussed. The discussion is supplemented with experimental data from a venturi meter. Finally, the difficulty in predicting phase behavior of wet gas systems is described.
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COGFM Ch. 14.1 Joint API/GPA Gas Sampling Working Group : Phase II Experimental Testing Under Simulated Field Conditions
Britton, C.L., Joshua J. Kinney,  1999, American Petroleum Institute

Abstract:
The American Petroleum Institute (API), Committee14.1, Gas Sampling Working Group, has contracted with various organizations to review existing sampling procedures and to perform experimental studies with the intent to revise and update the operating procedures. Phase I of the study was performed at the GRI natural gas Metering Research Facility (MRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. SwRI contracted with Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI) to assist in part of the Phase II testing. CEESI utilized an existing wet gas test facility to simulate many of the field conditions encountered by the natural gas industry. By utilizing the wet gas test facility, the field conditions could be simulated, but data could be collected under a more controlled condition. The experimental program was designed to investigate the differences between sample point locations and the differences between various spot sample methods for filling cylinders. The word “differences” is emphasized to draw attention to the fact that absolute accuracy is not as important as repeatability. In the experimental tests reported herein, the most important thing to do is to be consistent in the operation of all instruments and equipment. By consistent operation, data obtained at different times can be compared with confidence. The test program consisted of three distinct test plans that simulated both summer and winter conditions, and with various gas compositions that ranged from 1030 to 1540 BTU/cubic foot.
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Wet Gas Measurement
Tom Kegel,  1999, International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Abstract:
When material flowing in a pipe is made up of a mixture of fluid phases the term multiphase is used to classify this type of flow. Multiphase flow comprises a broad range of applications in different industries. Some examples include gas bubbles in flowing liquid, solid particles carried by a gas, and the flow of two immiscible liquids. Often a flowing stream of natural gas contains some level of hydrocarbon liquid and/or water. This is a form of multiphase flow often called wet gas.

This paper is intended to introduce the reader to wet gas multiphase flow measurement. First, some basic terms and flow features are presented. Second, a simple analysis of wet gas flow through an orifice meter is discussed. Finally, the difficulty in predicting phase behavior of gas/condensate systems is described.
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Wet Gas Metering at CEESI
Tom Kegel and Joshua Kinney,  1999, 45th International Instrumentation Symposium

Abstract:
A wet gas test facility has been built at the CEESI site in northern Colorado. The test facility design and operation is described. The preliminary uncertainty analysis is summarized. Some system shakedown results are discussed.
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Wet Gas Metering at CEESI
Tom Kegel and Joshua Kinney,  1998, AGA Operations Conference

Abstract:
A wet gas test facility is under construction at the CEESI site in northern Colorado. The test facility design and operation is described. Preliminary system shakedown data are presented. Future plans are briefly discussed.
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